Saturday, September 10, 2016

Ingress Packet Shaping (with CoDel)

Until recently I have been using a Raspberry Pi as my router and firewall, which worked reasonably well, though some useful features were lacking from the kernel. Within the past few months, my ISP increased the bandwidth of my plan and my pi could no longer keep up. So I upgraded my router to an "old" intel core i5 laptop. With that came an up to date linux kernel with it's full suite of packet shaping tools.

I have always used packet shaping on my router to help keep latency low. Low latency can be achieved under heavy bandwidth utilization by sending a little slower than the service plan allows, thus keeping modem and router buffers relatively empty. Latency increases when buffers fill up with data packets. This is known as bufferbloat. It is most effective to shape outbound traffic to the internet simply because I have full control over how fast I send data down the pipe to my ISP. Packet shaping, or rather policing downstream traffic is not as easy because I really have no control over how fast servers send data to me. Generally the best you can do is drop some packets to force the TCP layer to just slow down. In the past I have found that in order to avoid high latency during heavy downstream utilization required setting the ingress policing filter rate to a value substantially lower than my available bandwidth, say 75% of my available downstream bandwidth. Obviously this means I could never utilize the link's full capacity. Additionally, a single heavy downstream connection never seemed to utilize the maximum configured ingress rate. These were problems I wanted to solve with my new router setup.

Usually the only way you can limit the flow of downstream data is with an ingress policing filter with a rate limit, dropping packets when the preset data rate is exceeded. The more advanced packet shaping methods are only available as egress (upload) filters. However the linux kernel provides the Intermediate Functional Block device (IFB) to help with using advanced packet shaping methods with ingress data. When setup, it is an intermediate device that you can funnel ingress data to, and shape it as egress data. The Pi's kernel lacked the IFB device, making it difficult to shape inbound traffic.

I tried a few different packet shaping filters when setting up the IFB device, none of them worked as well as I had hoped, until I tried CoDel. I mostly followed the instruction found on this Gentoo traffic shaping post, though modified for my needs. The code below is the script I have been using for a while which seems to work well. A GitHub repository can be found at https://github.com/axlecrusher/packetshaping

echo 65535 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/netfilter/ip_conntrack_max modprobe sch_fq_codel modprobe ifb ifconfig ifb0 up mark() { $2 -j MARK --set-mark $1 $2 -j RETURN } OUTRATE=3300 #OUTRATESPLIT=666 OUTRATESPLIT=1000 #DOWNMAX=35000 DOWNMAX=33 DOWNRATE=31500 #MTU=1454 MTU=1500 iptables -t mangle -N TOINTERNET iptables -t mangle -N FROMINTERNET #iptables -t mangle -F iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i eth0 ! -d 192.168.0.0/16 -j TOINTERNET iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i eth1 ! -s 192.168.0.0/16 -j FROMINTERNET #iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -i eth1 -j IMQ --todev 0 iptables -t mangle -A FORWARD -o eth1 -p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST SYN -m tcpmss --mss 1400:65495 -j TCPMSS --clamp-mss-to-pmtu #CrashPlan, need tc to check tos = 0x04 mark "0x40" "iptables -t mangle -A TOINTERNET -s 192.168.1.250 -p tcp --dport 443" #interactive mark "0x20" "iptables -t mangle -A TOINTERNET -p udp --dport 9000:9010" #adam game #from internet mark "0x10" "iptables -t mangle -A FROMINTERNET -p udp --sport 9000:9010" #adam game #iptables -t mangle -L -v -n #tc qdisc del dev imq0 root 2> /dev/null > /dev/null tc qdisc del dev eth1 root 2> /dev/null > /dev/null tc qdisc del dev eth1 ingress 2> /dev/null > /dev/null tc qdisc del dev ifb0 root 2> /dev/null > /dev/null tc qdisc del dev ifb0 ingress 2> /dev/null > /dev/null #default traffic queue 30 tc qdisc add dev eth1 root handle 1: htb default 30 tc class add dev eth1 parent 1:0 classid 1:1 htb rate ${OUTRATE}kbit ceil ${OUTRATE}kbit burst 75k tc class add dev eth1 parent 1:1 classid 1:10 htb rate ${OUTRATESPLIT}kbit ceil ${OUTRATE}kbit mtu ${MTU} prio 1 tc class add dev eth1 parent 1:1 classid 1:20 htb rate ${OUTRATESPLIT}kbit ceil ${OUTRATE}kbit mtu ${MTU} prio 2 tc class add dev eth1 parent 1:1 classid 1:30 htb rate ${OUTRATESPLIT}kbit ceil ${OUTRATE}kbit mtu ${MTU} prio 3 tc class add dev eth1 parent 1:1 classid 1:40 htb rate 58kbit ceil ${OUTRATE}kbit mtu ${MTU} prio 4 tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:10 handle 10: sfq perturb 10 limit 43 #average packet size of 83 bytes tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:20 handle 20: sfq perturb 10 limit 5 #average packet size 52 bytes, 30ms buffer tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:30 handle 30: sfq perturb 10 limit 5 #average packet size 122 bytes, 35ms buffer tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:40 handle 40: sfq perturb 10 limit 70 #####first filter to match wins #icmp tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 1 0xff flowid 1:10 #DNS tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 17 0xff match ip dport 53 0xffff flowid 1:10 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x12 0xff at nexthdr+13 flowid 1:10 #SYN,ACK tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x02 0xff at nexthdr+13 flowid 1:10 #SYN tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x11 0xff at nexthdr+13 flowid 1:10 #FIN,ACK tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x01 0xff at nexthdr+13 flowid 1:10 #FIN tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x14 0xff at nexthdr+13 flowid 1:10 #RST,ACK tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x05 0x0f at 0 match u8 0x10 0xff at 33 match u16 0x0000 0xffc0 at 2 flowid 1:20 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 11 u32 match ip protocol 6 0xff match u8 0x05 0x0f at 0 match u8 0x10 0xff at 33 match u16 0x0000 0xff00 at 2 flowid 1:30 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 12 handle 0x10 fw flowid 1:10 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 13 handle 0x20 fw flowid 1:20 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 14 handle 0x30 fw flowid 1:30 tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 15 handle 0x40 fw flowid 1:40 #shape inbound traffic tc qdisc add dev eth1 handle ffff: ingress tc filter add dev eth1 parent ffff: protocol all u32 match u32 0 0 action mirred egress redirect dev ifb0 tc qdisc add dev ifb0 root handle 1: tbf rate ${DOWNMAX}mbit burst 40k latency 30ms tc qdisc add dev ifb0 parent 1: fq_codel #tc -s -d class show dev eth1

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